Resources and Education

Here you’ll find the resources you need to get started observing, photographing, and more — your essential introduction to astronomy. Learn the best telescopes for starting out, the basics of using a star wheel, and find Spanish-language introductions to stargazing. Whatever you try, good luck and clear skies!

Stargazing Basics
Common (and not so common) Questions & Answers
Astrophotography Advice & Resources

Fermi visualization of Milky Way bubbles

Q&A: Understanding the Fermi Bubbles

Sky & Telescope features a Q&A between The Kavli Foundation and three astrophysicists who discovered two enormous and unexpected structures radiating from the center of our galaxy. They discuss what these mysterious bubbles can tell us about the history of the Milky Way and how they could help in the search for dark matter.

Closed universe (top), open universe (middle), and flat universe (bottom). 
NASA

Is space flat or curved?

Locally, spacetime is curved by the presence of massive objects. The total mass and energy density of the universe also has an effect on the overall curvature of space.

The dark matter concentrations in the galaxy cluster Abell 1689 are tinted blue. Astronomers determined the location of those concentrations from gravitational lensing.
NASA, ESA, and D. Coe (NASA JPL/Caltech and STScI)

What is dark matter?

Dark matter is a mysterious type of matter that doesn't interact with any form of electromagnetic radiation, i.e., light. Although we’ve never detected dark matter directly, a large amount of evidence points to its existence.

Artist's rendering of a supermassive black hole.
NASA/JPL-Caltech

How big is a black hole?

Black holes are singularities: points of infinitely small volume with infinite density. However, the amount of a mass concentrated in a black hole varies, and the mass determines how wide the black hole's sphere of influence is.

Two-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional curvature of spacetime around a massive object. 
NASA

Are black holes real? If so, who discovered them?

The concept of a black hole was first contrived in by John Michell 1783. For a long time, many notable scientists, including Albert Einstein, believed black holes were merely theoretical. However, in the last century, astronomers have gathered a good deal of observational evidence for the existence of black holes.